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سلام به نوین الکترونیک های عزیز (Nelsco) اوقات به کام.

مبحث رطوبت و دما را خاطرتان هست؟ اگر نه لطفا یک نگاه اجمالی به آن ها بیندازید چون در اینجا میخواهیم به اندازه گیری آنها بپردازیم. مقدار رطوبت و مباحث مرتبط به آن را ما در راستای رطوبت هوا مطرح کردیم. و دانستیم که میزان رطوبت هوا همان میزان بخار آب موجود در هوا است.

[/fusion_text][fusion_imageframe image_id=”1572|thumbnail” max_width=”” style_type=”” blur=”” stylecolor=”” hover_type=”none” bordersize=”” bordercolor=”” borderradius=”” align=”none” lightbox=”no” gallery_id=”” lightbox_image=”” lightbox_image_id=”” alt=”” link=”” linktarget=”_self” hide_on_mobile=”small-visibility,medium-visibility,large-visibility” class=”” id=”” animation_type=”” animation_direction=”left” animation_speed=”0.3″ animation_offset=”” filter_hue=”0″ filter_saturation=”100″ filter_brightness=”100″ filter_contrast=”100″ filter_invert=”0″ filter_sepia=”0″ filter_opacity=”100″ filter_blur=”0″ filter_hue_hover=”0″ filter_saturation_hover=”100″ filter_brightness_hover=”100″ filter_contrast_hover=”100″ filter_invert_hover=”0″ filter_sepia_hover=”0″ filter_opacity_hover=”100″ filter_blur_hover=”0″]https://www.nelsco.ir/wp-content/uploads/2020/08/images-2-1-e1597290604256-150×150.jpg[/fusion_imageframe][/fusion_builder_column][fusion_builder_column type=”2_3″ layout=”1_2″ spacing=”” center_content=”no” link=”” target=”_self” min_height=”” hide_on_mobile=”small-visibility,medium-visibility,large-visibility” class=”” id=”” hover_type=”none” border_color=”” border_style=”solid” border_position=”all” border_radius=”” box_shadow=”no” dimension_box_shadow=”” box_shadow_blur=”0″ box_shadow_spread=”0″ box_shadow_color=”” box_shadow_style=”” padding_top=”” padding_right=”” padding_bottom=”” padding_left=”” margin_top=”” margin_bottom=”” background_type=”single” gradient_start_color=”” gradient_end_color=”” gradient_start_position=”0″ gradient_end_position=”100″ gradient_type=”linear” radial_direction=”center center” linear_angle=”180″ background_color=”” background_image=”” background_image_id=”” background_position=”left top” background_repeat=”no-repeat” background_blend_mode=”none” animation_type=”” animation_direction=”left” animation_speed=”0.3″ animation_offset=”” filter_type=”regular” filter_hue=”0″ filter_saturation=”100″ filter_brightness=”100″ filter_contrast=”100″ filter_invert=”0″ filter_sepia=”0″ filter_opacity=”100″ filter_blur=”0″ filter_hue_hover=”0″ filter_saturation_hover=”100″ filter_brightness_hover=”100″ filter_contrast_hover=”100″ filter_invert_hover=”0″ filter_sepia_hover=”0″ filter_opacity_hover=”100″ filter_blur_hover=”0″ last=”true” border_sizes_top=”0″ border_sizes_bottom=”0″ border_sizes_left=”0″ border_sizes_right=”0″ type=”2_3″ first=”false”][fusion_imageframe image_id=”1564|full” max_width=”” style_type=”” blur=”” stylecolor=”” hover_type=”none” bordersize=”” bordercolor=”” borderradius=”” align=”none” lightbox=”no” gallery_id=”” lightbox_image=”” lightbox_image_id=”” alt=”” link=”” linktarget=”_self” hide_on_mobile=”small-visibility,medium-visibility,large-visibility” class=”” id=”” animation_type=”” animation_direction=”left” animation_speed=”0.3″ animation_offset=”” filter_hue=”0″ filter_saturation=”100″ filter_brightness=”100″ filter_contrast=”100″ filter_invert=”0″ filter_sepia=”0″ filter_opacity=”100″ filter_blur=”0″ filter_hue_hover=”0″ filter_saturation_hover=”100″ filter_brightness_hover=”100″ filter_contrast_hover=”100″ filter_invert_hover=”0″ filter_sepia_hover=”0″ filter_opacity_hover=”100″ filter_blur_hover=”0″]https://www.nelsco.ir/wp-content/uploads/2020/08/download-3.jpg[/fusion_imageframe][fusion_text columns=”” column_min_width=”” column_spacing=”” rule_style=”default” rule_size=”” rule_color=”” hide_on_mobile=”small-visibility,medium-visibility,large-visibility” class=”” id=”” animation_type=”” animation_direction=”left” animation_speed=”0.3″ animation_offset=””]

روشهای متفاوتی برای این سنجش وجود دارد که اصطلاحا روش مستقیم و غیرمستقیم است. در روش مستقیم میتوان از عناصر بسیار حساس به رطوبت هوا استفاده کرد که با تغییر رطوبت تغییر خواص فیزیکی یا شیمیایی دهد و به میزان آن تغییر، میتوان میزان رطوبت موجود در هوا را اندازه گرفت. یکی از مدلهای جالب ازین سبک رطوبت سنج هیدروگراف یا ترموهیگرومتر است. روش کار این رطوبت سنج بسیار جذاب است. در این سیستم از موی خاصی از انسان یا پوست قورباغه استفاده میشود که اینها به وزنه ای خاص وصلند و در حال کشش هستند. بر اثر رطوبت هوا میزان تغییر طول مو یا میزان تغییر سطح پوست حیوان، رطوبت را مشخص میکند. این وسیله را به وفور در ایستگاههای هواشناسی میبینید.

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قطعا با پیشرفت علم منتظر مدلی بصورت دیجیتال هستیم که به این مدلها ترمو هیدرومتر دیجیتالی میگویند. این وسایل در واقع بر مبنای سنسورها کار میکنند.در برابر رطوبت هوا ، جریان الکتریکی تولید میکنند که میزان این جریان الکتریکی با رطوبت هوا در ارتباط است.
روشهای قبل مرسوم به روشهای مستقیم بودند. در روش غیر مستقیم دو پارامتر اصلی را اندازه گیری میکنیم : دمای دماسنج خشک چرخان و دماسنج تر چرخان. که در این روش از نمودار و خط کش و محاسبات ازین دست استفاده میشود.
دنیای سنجش و اندازه گیری هر روزه در حال پیشرفت است. در کنار این پیشرفتها ما شاهد هوشمندتر شدن پیرامون اطرافمان هستیم.
این رطوبت موجود در هوا ممکن است در شرایط آب و هوایی سرد و یخ تبدیل به شبنم شود. که مبحث جداست و به آن نمیپردازیم.

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قبلا دما را شرح دادیم حال نوبت یادگیری اندازه گیری آن است. فرض کنید در یک مهمانی هستید و برایتان چایی ریخته اند. شما عادت به خوردن چایی سرد دارید ولی صاحبخانه در جریان نیست. بعد از ده دقیقه که صبر کرده اید که دمای چای به دمای مطلوب و باب میلتان برسد، صاحبخانه اصرار دارد که چای شما یخ کرده و میخواهد برایتان چایی جدید بیاورد. چایی سرد شده، چایی یخ کرد، چایی خوبه یا داغه، کلماتی آشنا هستندو. چایی سرد شده یعنی چه؟ من چایی سرد دوست دارم. این سردی چه اندازه است؟ نسبی بودن این مدل کلمات با مثال بالا مشخص شد. اگر بخواهیم علمی حرف زنیم نمیتوانیم ازین نسبی بودنها زیاد بکار بریم. باید بتوانیم دقیق بگوییم این چایی 10 X است و این شربت 5 X و این ایکس مقدار کاملا مشخصی باشد.
نگران نباشید من و شما قرار نیست این واحد اندازه گیری را کشف یا اختراع کنیم. دانشمندان پیش از ما این زحمت را کشیده اند و ما تنها نیاز به آشنایی با آنها داریم.

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قبلا دما را شرح دادیم حال نوبت یادگیری اندازه گیری آن است. فرض کنید در یک مهمانی هستید و برایتان چایی ریخته اند. شما عادت به خوردن چایی سرد دارید ولی صاحبخانه در جریان نیست. بعد از ده دقیقه که صبر کرده اید که دمای چای به دمای مطلوب و باب میلتان برسد، صاحبخانه اصرار دارد که چای شما یخ کرده و میخواهد برایتان چایی جدید بیاورد. چایی سرد شده، چایی یخ کرد، چایی خوبه یا داغه، کلماتی آشنا هستندو. چایی سرد شده یعنی چه؟ من چایی سرد دوست دارم. این سردی چه اندازه است؟ نسبی بودن این مدل کلمات با مثال بالا مشخص شد. اگر بخواهیم علمی حرف زنیم نمیتوانیم ازین نسبی بودنها زیاد بکار بریم. باید بتوانیم دقیق بگوییم این چایی 10 X است و این شربت 5 X و این ایکس مقدار کاملا مشخصی باشد.
نگران نباشید من و شما قرار نیست این واحد اندازه گیری را کشف یا اختراع کنیم. دانشمندان پیش از ما این زحمت را کشیده اند و ما تنها نیاز به آشنایی با آنها داریم.

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واحدهای اندازه گیری برای دما سانتیگراد، فارنهایت و کلوین هستند. سانتیگراد برگرفته از نام ستاره شناسی به نام آندرس سلسیوس است که در واقع اینگونه تعریف میشود. آب در صفر درجه سانتیگراد یخ میزند و در صد درجه سانتیگراد به جوش می آید. البته این مورد در فشار یک آتمسفر است. فاصله بین این دو اندازه را به صد قسمت تقسیم کنید. هر قسمت نمایانگر یک درجه سانتیگراد است. نماد آن °C است.
نام درجه فارنهایت به افتخار مخترع دماسنج جیوه ای، آقای گابریل دانیل فارنهایت گذاشته شده است. مبنای کار اینگونه است که این آقای دانشمند با سه نقطه اصلی کار کرد. اول میزان دمای مخلوطی از آب و نشادر و یخ که مبنای درجه صفر قرار گرفته شد. دوم دمای مخلوطی از آب و یخ است و سومین اصل آقای دانشمند دمای بدن انسان در نظر گرفته شده. پروسه اندازه گیری ها و سنجشها را توضیح نمیدهم چون میدانم خارج از حوصله عزیزان خواهد بود. در نهایت و با ایجاد ورژنهای جدیدی از این معیار نقطه ذوب یخ 32 درجه و دمای جوش آن 212 درجه فارنهایت مشخص شد. با نماد F آن را نمایش میدهیم.

در نهایت به فاکتور کلوین میرسیم. این مورد نیز به افتخار دانشمند بنامی بنا شده. کدام دانشمند؟ بله درست است آقای کلوین که نام کامل ایشان، ویلیام تامسون لرد کلوین است. ایشان بر روی مبحث مقیاس سنجش دمایی مطلق تحقیق بسیار انجام داده اند و از اهمیت شناخت آن گفته اند. که نماد آن K است.
با در نظر گرفتن اندکی خطا خواهیم داشت:
1 K = 1 °C = 9/5 °F

 

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linear_angle=”180″ background_color=”” background_image=”” background_image_id=”” background_position=”left top” background_repeat=”no-repeat” background_blend_mode=”none” animation_type=”” animation_direction=”left” animation_speed=”0.3″ animation_offset=”” filter_type=”regular” filter_hue=”0″ filter_saturation=”100″ filter_brightness=”100″ filter_contrast=”100″ filter_invert=”0″ filter_sepia=”0″ filter_opacity=”100″ filter_blur=”0″ filter_hue_hover=”0″ filter_saturation_hover=”100″ filter_brightness_hover=”100″ filter_contrast_hover=”100″ filter_invert_hover=”0″ filter_sepia_hover=”0″ filter_opacity_hover=”100″ filter_blur_hover=”0″ last=”true” border_sizes_top=”0″ border_sizes_bottom=”0″ border_sizes_left=”0″ border_sizes_right=”0″ type=”1_1″ first=”true”][fusion_text columns=”” column_min_width=”” column_spacing=”” rule_style=”default” rule_size=”” rule_color=”” hide_on_mobile=”small-visibility,medium-visibility,large-visibility” class=”” id=”” animation_type=”” animation_direction=”left” animation_speed=”0.3″ animation_offset=””]

تمام اینها را دانستیم ولی آیا تجهیزاتی برای این اندازه گیریها هست؟ قطعا بله. تعداد این تجهیزات بسیار زیاد است و تنها به تعدادی از آنها اشاره میکنیم.
دماسنج
ترموسنسور
ترمومتر
ترموسنسور
ترموستات
ترموکوپل
و …
دسته بندیهای متفاوتی برای آنها در نظر گرفته اند از جمله تماسی و غیر تماسی. شما باید نوع کارتان را مشخص کنید تا مشخص شود از کدام یک باید استفاده کنید. بعبارتی بر اساس نیازتان انتخاب نوع دماسنج دارید.

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در همین سایت ادامه این مبحث را دنبال کنید.

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