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تنظیم  و کنترل دما ( ترموستات)

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سلام به نوین الکترونیک های عزیز (Nelsco) اوقات به کام.

دما را شناختیم. در حیطه شناخت و اندازه گیری آنچه که نیاز بود دانستیم. حال به کنترل دما میپردازیم. آیا نیاز است دما کنترل شود؟ چرا و چگونه؟ دما را میتوان با روشهای مختلف و دماسنج های گوناگون ( تماسی و غیرتماسی) سنجید و اندازه گرفت. ولی برای کنترل دما وسیله ای بنام ترموستات داریم.

فضای گلخانه را تصور کنید. محلی بسته یا مسقف که دارای مقدار قابل توجهی بخار هوا در آن محیط داریم. بر طبق گفته های پیشین میدانیم اگر این قطرات آب معلق در هوا به میزان کافی سرد شوند باعث یخ زدگی میشوند. :( رسما گلها را از زنده بودن پشیمان کردیم.

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این بخار آب را اگر اندکی گرمای بیشتر دهیم باعث شرجی شدن و خفگی میشود و برگهای گیاهان میسوزد . عمق مفهوم کنترل دما در همین مثال ساده بود. برای هر هدف و منظور خاص این مقادیر متفاوت است. در یک سردخانه باید دمای هوا به منهای 24 درجه برسد و در یک گلخانه با گلی خاص یا میوه ای خاص باید دما بالای 35 درجه سانتیگراد باشد.

برای سرد کردن دما میشود از کولر و برای گرم کردن از بخاری استفاده کرد. یک دماسنج و رطوبت سنج در گوشه اتاق بگذاریم و هر چند دقیقه بسنجیم، لازم است بخاری روشن کنیم یا کولر. به همین راحتی!!!! کنترل دما در همین چرخه است.

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نه واقعا راحت نیست و بهتر است از ابزارهای صنعتی و هوشمند استفاده کنیم . نام این ابزار برای کنترل دما ترموستات است.

ترموستات درواقع همین چرخه کنترل، اندازه گیری و روشن کردن بخاری یا کولر( انتقال گرما به درون یا خارج محیط) را انجام میدهد.

ایده بعدی برای ساخت ترموستات استفاده از اصول فیزیک و شیمی است. بر طبق علوم مختلف اکثر مواد وقتی گرم میشوند منبسط شده و حجمشان زیاد میشود و اگر ماده را سرد کنیم، منقبض شده و کوچکتر میشوند ( آب در این میان استثنا است). و این تغییرات به ما کمک میکند که جریان الکتریکی را قطع و وصل کنیم.

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1- ترموستات بی متال

دو فلز را بصورت موازی به هم وصل شده و چسبیده شده در نظر بگیرید. وقتی این دو فلز بهم وصل هستند پس اتصال داریم. جریان برق در این حالت برقرار است و در صورتی که گرما ببینند باعث انبساط شده و یکی از آنها خم میشود و این اتصال را قطع میکند. از طرفی این انقباض انبساط به آرامی رخ میدهد و نیاز به تغییر و قطع هر ثانیه جریان نیستیم. به تغییرات کند جواب میدهد.

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2- ترموستات گازی

برای رفع ایراد ترموستات بی متال از مدل گازی استفاده میکنند که عکس العمل آنی نسبت به تغییر دما دارد. این مدل اینگونه عمل میکند که دو دیسک بزرگ داریم که بینشان را با گاز یا مایع حساس به دما پر میکنند.بمحض زیاد شدن دما،حجم مواد مابین زیاد شده و دیسکها را از هم جدا میکند و اگر دما کم شود انقباض رخ داده و دیسکها بهم نزدیک میشوند. با اتصال دیسکها به هم در واقع جریان برقرار میشود.

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3- ترموستات مومی

بر طبق تعاریف قبلی، ترموستاتهای بی متال و گازی بر اساس انبساط یک جامد یا گاز(تغییر اندازه و شکل) کار میکنند.

در ترموستاتهای مومی از تغییر حالت ماده از مایع به گاز بهره میگیرند. در صورت افزایش دما، موم ذوب شده و انبساط پیدا کرده و میله ای را از محفظه به بیرون هل میدهد که باعث قطع یا وصل یک کلید میشود. این مدل ترموستات در رادیاتورهای ماشین و سیستم گرمایشی خانه کاربرد دارد. در واقع این مدل ترموستات در دماهای بالا و شرایط سختتر قابل اعتمادتر از مدلهای قبلی هستند و عملکرد آنها ماندگارتر است.

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اگر بخواهیم ترموستات را از دیدگاه دیگری دسته بندی کنیم موارد مختلفی را میتوان در نظر گرفت:

اینکه نوع کنترل دما برای گرمایش است یا برودت. حتی به بیان دیگر مدلهای فصلی نیز داریم که به سه دسته اصلی تابستانی، زمستانی و دو فصلی تقسیم میشود.

ممکن است مدل کارکرد آنها متفاوت باشد که سه مدل اصلی داریم : قطعی، وصلی و تدریجی

اینکه این ترموستات در چه مکانی استفاده میشود نیز نوع آن را متفاوت میکند.

و …

کلیت ماجرا را متوجه شدیم.

ما را در توضیحات بعدی دنبال کنید.

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